Tag Archives: pain relief

What is Trauma?

Physiotherapy is an effective tool to treat injuries that can range anywhere from minor to catastrophic. Occasionally, regardless of the severity of the injury, some people experience symptoms such as hypersensitivity or emotional stress as a product of, or in addition to, their physical trauma. For some, these psychological and emotional stressors can act as a difficult obstacle to overcome, and can actually hinder the success of physical injury recovery. Physiotherapists will often recognize these psychological and emotional symptoms, and will recommend the injured person see a qualified therapist who specializes in dealing with trauma. Working with a therapist is a great adjunct to physiotherapy and helps the client to achieve their recovery goals. The following article is a guest blog post by John Roche from Transformation Counselling

What is Trauma?

Trauma. It’s one of those words that gets thrown around without ever really being explained. Derived from the Greek word for “wound,” trauma could refer to an overwhelming psychological experience or the psychological imprint left by such an experience. Either way, it’s important to know how to recognize trauma and post-traumatic stress and how to recover from them.

Trauma is caused by an overwhelming experience in which someone perceives their survival to be threatened and/or their fundamental beliefs about themselves and the world are shattered. Sexual assault, military combat, child abuse, car accidents, and natural disasters are well-known examples of traumatic events.

Lesser known instances of trauma involve what’s called “attachment trauma.” Children’s development is extremely dependent on the attentiveness and responsiveness of their “attachment figures” (usually parents), and if an attachment figure is not attuned and responsive to the needs of a child, then, as far as that child’s brain is concerned, its survival is threatened and it will adapt accordingly.

Post-traumatic symptoms are painful and overwhelming, but, as scary as they are, they’re simply the result of the brain’s adaptation to traumatic situations. From an evolutionary perspective, this adaptation is an attempt to ensure the person’s survival, which is pretty much the brain’s number one priority.

Imagine that every brain has its own smoke detector. When it’s functioning properly, this smoke detector alerts us to legitimate threats and cues the release of protective firefighters who come and rescue us: heightened alertness, a pounding heart and restricted digestion to make sure we have plenty of energy to fight or run away, rage to help us fight off attackers, or, as a last resort if escape or self-defence aren’t possible, a freeze response like a deer in headlights.

Trauma hyper-sensitizes the smoke detector. At the slightest hint of smoke, these firefighters come rushing in to put out a fire that doesn’t actually exist.

People who have experienced trauma therefore tend to struggle with anxiety, rage, concentration difficulties, digestive issues, feelings of disconnectedness, and hypersensitivity to perceived threats. Understandably, survivors of trauma also tend to feel depressed, develop addictions as a means to escape their pain, and avoid anything that might trigger their smoke detectors.

Faced with such nightmarish symptoms, trauma survivors tend to imagine they’re broken. In reality, their brains have done exactly what they were supposed to do: adapt to threat and facilitate survival. Once upon a time, these adaptations made perfect sense and helped them survive. Unfortunately, such adaptations persist beyond the traumatic event and cause pretty major problems.

Recovery from trauma is essentially about training the brain to re-establish an internal sense of safety and leave behind survival adaptations that are no longer necessary. EMDR therapy in particular has been proven to be extremely effective at eliminating post-traumatic symptoms by healing trauma at its roots.

If you’re a survivor of trauma, you are not crazy. Your brain has actually done exactly what it was intended to do and, as unbelievable as it may sound, full recovery is possible. If you’re ready to get on with your life, contact us today to get started.


John Roche, MDiv, MSW, RSWheadshotsfull-9edit

John is a therapist with two Master’s degrees in counselling and three years of clinical experience. He has specialized trauma training in both Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). In his spare time, he loves to hike, reflect on the meaning of life, and eat nachos.

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Acupuncture

Acupuncture is a form of treatment which involves the insertion of tiny needles into the skin at very precise points throughout the body. The needles are solid, sterile, and single-use. No medication is injected. The presence of the needles creates a therapeutic effect by encouraging healing, reducing pain, and promoting energy.

Acupuncture

How does acupuncture work?
There are two approaches to acupuncture: classical acupuncture and anatomical acupuncture.

Classical acupuncture is rooted in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In TCM theory, energy flows through the body in predictable channels, called meridians. Pain and dysfunction occur when the flow of energy is deficient or out of balance. TCM theory proposes that acupuncture relieves pain and promotes good health by restoring the body’s energy balance. The acupuncture points are located along the meridians. Needles are inserted to correct energy imbalance and restore energy flow throughout the meridian. Therefore, pain and dysfunction in one part of the body can be treated with acupuncture points at a distant location in the body.

Anatomical acupuncture was developed based on Western anatomical and physiological concepts. In this theory, acupuncture has both local and distant effects:

  • Locally, acupuncture needles stimulate the release of endogenous opioids at the site of the needle. Endogenous opioids are natural painkiller molecules that are synthesized in the body and released to decrease pain. Blood supply to the area is increased, which promotes healing by improving the delivery of oxygen and immune cells to the injured tissue. Immune cells, such as mast cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts aid the natural process of tissue healing. The needles also suppress the local inflammatory response, which further helps to decrease swelling and pain.
  • Distal to the needle site, acupuncture stimulates peripheral afferent nerves. Afferent nerves carry sensation signals from nerve endings to the brain (such as sensations of touch, temperature, and pain). The acupuncture needle interacts with the afferent nerves to modulate and suppress the transmission of pain to the brain. This reduces the perception of pain.

What are the benefits of acupuncture?
Acupuncture is effective in treating a wide variety of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, including:

  • Tendonitis and tendinopathy
  • Ligament sprains
  • Muscle strains
  • Myofascial pain and inflammation
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Nerve pain, such as sciatic pain
  • Low back pain and disc bulges
  • Whiplash and other neck pain
  • Muscle tension headache and suboccipital headache
  • Bell’s palsy and trigeminal neuralgia
  • Fibromyalgia

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture is used to treat many other conditions:

  • Digestive problems (nausea, vomiting, constipation)
  • Respiratory problems (sinusitis, congestion, bronchitis)
  • Urinary problems
  • Menstrual pain
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety and stress

What can I expect from acupuncture treatment?
The reaction to treatment is unique to each person. Some people feel relief immediately, while others notice improvement after hours or days. Some people require several treatments before noticing improvement. Some people do not respond at all. The number of treatments required varies for each patient and condition. Similar to most types of treatment, acupuncture works best if it is repeated a few times.

Are there any side effects?
There are usually no side effects to acupuncture treatment. The most common side effects are tenderness or slight bruising/bleeding at the needle site, but these only occur approximately 6% of the time. Occasionally, someone may feel nauseous, faint, or dizzy. This occurs less than 1% of the time.

Your physiotherapist will assess you thoroughly to ensure that you are a safe and appropriate candidate for acupuncture treatment.

Preparing for acupuncture treatment
Prior to treatment, have a light meal and be well-rested. Avoid alcohol or sedative medications for 4 hours before treatment, and avoid smoking tobacco for 1 hour before treatment. Continue to take medication as prescribed by your doctor.

After acupuncture treatment avoid alcohol, caffeine, and smoking tobacco for 1-2 hours. If you are being treated for pain relief, avoid strenuous activity for 1-2 days after treatment, even if you feel pain-free.

Conclusion
Acupuncture is a useful adjunct treatment to physiotherapy. It is effective for treating a wide variety of musculoskeletal and neurological problems, including acute and chronic conditions. Your physiotherapist will assess you thoroughly and create a treatment plan to address your unique needs.

BodyTech Physiotherapy

References
ZQ Zhao. Neural mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. Progress in Neurobiology. (2008)

ZJ Zhang, XM Wang, GM McAlonan. Neural acupuncture unit: A new concept for interpreting effects and mechanisms of acupuncture. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2012)

SM Wang, ZN Kain, P White. Acupuncture analgesia: I. The scientific basis. Anesthesia and Analgesia (2008).

 

Physiotherapy Treatment for Headaches

headacheMost of us have experienced a headache at some point in our life. For some people they are a more frequent occurrence and can have a significant impact on their daily lives. Over the counter medication is the most popular choice for immediate symptom relief, however for certain types of headaches, while medication may help to relieve the symptoms, the underlying cause of the headaches is not being treated, and symptoms are likely to return. What most people don’t realize is that Physiotherapists can treat the root cause of most headaches, not only relieving the immediate pain, but prevent it from reoccurring. Headaches can typically be grouped into three main types, tension, cervicogenic, and migraine. Each type is characterized by different causes of headache pain.

Tension Type Headache

Tension headaches are the most common. Pain from a tension headache is usually described as a dull pressure or tightening sensation. The pain is typically felt in the forehead, both temples and the back of the head. A tension headache can last anywhere from thirty minutes to seven days. A tension headache will not cause nausea but it may cause either increased sensitivity to light or sound. There are numerous causes or risk factors that can contribute to a headache. The most common triggers include muscle tension in the neck and shoulders, poor posture or sustained postures for an extended period of time, and eye strain. Stress, dehydration, hunger, and hormonal changes are additional factors that may contribute to tension headaches.

Cervicogenic Headache

Another common type of headache is a cervicogenic headache. Approximately 1 out of 100 people experience this type of headache. A cervicogenic headache, as the name implies, is cervical in origin. The headache pain is perceived as occurring in the head but the actual cause is in the neck. The pain is usually a dull, one sided ache that starts in the back of the head and spreads to the forehead, temples and behind the eyes. The person may experience pain in the neck, and possibly difficulty turning the head. This type of headache can last days or even months and can be constant or reoccurring. The most significant causes or contributing factors are stiff joints in the neck, temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ), poor posture, upper back pain or stiffness, muscle weakness or tightness in the neck shoulder and back area, whiplash or other neck injury, and poor sleep positions. Additionally, cervicogenic headaches can develop months after a concussion or head injury indicating dysfunction in the joints of the neck.

Migraine

Migraine headaches, according to the international headache society, are a genetic neurological disease. Migraines can be categorized as being with or without an aura. An aura is described as visual or sensory symptoms or speech disturbance. Visual symptoms can be flickering lights, seeing spots or loss of vision. Sensory symptoms can include pins and needles, and numbness. The diagnostic criteria for a migraine states the aura must last longer than five minutes but less than one hour. A migraine headache can last from four to seventy-two hours. It is usually described as a one sided, pulsing type of pain. The pain is usually moderate to severe and aggravated with activity. A migraine may cause nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light and sound. The sufferer may experience pre-headache symptoms such as food cravings, mood changes, and fatigue or muscle stiffness.

How Physio Can Help:

There are many other sub-categories of headaches, and although we have categorized them, it is possible for one type of headache to cause another type of headache. For example, a tension headache if left untreated can trigger a migraine for some people, making it more complex to diagnose what type of headache you have. Migraines are generally not treated by a physiotherapist, however if the you have pre-headache symptoms such as muscle tightness, pain or joint stiffness in the jaw, neck, upper back or shoulders these can often be the factor that trigger the migraine. The approach with physiotherapy in this case is to eliminate the muscle and joint issues to diminish the number of triggers.

Tension type headaches and cervicogenic headaches are the two main types that can be treated by physiotherapy. The most common contributing factors to these two types of headaches are poor posture, a combination of weak or tight muscles known as muscle imbalances, or joint stiffness which can be in the neck, jaw, back or shoulders. An issue in one or more of these areas is often the cause of re-occurring headaches because all of these areas are closely connected. If someone is experiencing headaches, but also has a shoulder problem, the two issues are not always considered in combination however, when it comes to treating headaches they should be linked as the muscles in the neck also help with movement or stability in the shoulder. In order to treat tension and cervicogenic headache a detailed assessment of the neck, shoulders, and upper and lower back would be required. The assessment should identify postural discrepancies, muscle dysfunctions such as weak, tight or overactive muscles, and joint mobility issues such as too much or too little movement.

Once specific areas of dysfunction have been identified, an individualized treatment approach can be developed. Treatment should include postural education and correction for specific postural positions. Postural awareness training on how to activate the correct group of muscles to achieve optimal posture is crucial in decreasing this contributing factor. Posture can also be corrected with specific taping techniques that can either help you turn on certain muscles or prevent you from falling into a poor posture. Taping can provide quick relief of discomfort but is only used temporarily until you are able to stretch and strengthen to achieve a good posture actively.

The next step in treatment is usually specific active and passive stretching of the shortened and tight neck and shoulder muscles. Stretching improves the muscle balance in the neck and will reduce the tension in the muscles surrounding the joint and thereby relieve pain. Stretches should be specific to isolate one muscles instead of general neck stretches which can further aggravate a headache.

Once the muscle tension has been reduced, strengthening of the weak neck, back and shoulder muscles should be started. Strengthening is important to help correct posture and eliminate strain of the muscles and joints when in certain positions. Weakness in certain muscles is often the cause of ongoing pain and inability to maintain good postural alignment. The focus with strengthening should start with the deep stabilizing muscles of the neck and back; these muscle require a combination of strength and endurance to support our upright postures throughout the day.

For tension and cervicogenic headaches, stretching and strengthening exercises alone are not enough to reduce the occurrence of a headache. Underlying the muscle tightness and weakness is usually cervical spine joint stiffness or lack of movement. This lack of movement in the neck joints needs to addressed in order to decrease the strain in the neck. Physiotherapists that are trained in manual therapy can help to loosen a stiff or locked joint through a technique called joint mobilization. Joint mobilization is a specific technique used to improve movement in a joint to restore range of motion and decrease the tension in the muscles around the area as well as reduce pain.

In addition to manual therapy and exercise there are other modalities a physiotherapist can use to help relieve pain. The application of a heating pad to the neck, shoulders and back can help to reduce muscle tension by increasing circulation in the area. The reduction in muscle tension provides relief of pain. Interferential current (IFC) can be used to provide immediate pain relief. IFC is the application of mild electrical stimulation to the muscle and nerve endings that cause pain. This blocks the pain receptors and decreases the pain, which in return helps to relax the muscles in the area.

Acupuncture is a common modality used to help relieve headaches and muscle tension. Acupuncture stimulates an increase in blood flow, which relieves muscle tension and thus relieves the pain in the surrounding area. It also helps in stimulating the production of our natural pain killers and anti-inflammatories. Often patients are too sore or tender to tolerate stretching or massage in the affected area; acupuncture is a great option to decrease the local soreness and allow treatment to continue.

To effectively treat headaches all of the contributing factors must be considered and addressed. Active participation from the patient is a necessity to be successful. Just as important is correcting or modifying aggravating activities or postures to decrease the severity and occurrence of pain. Additionally, continual prevention is an important step, if you are aware of stressors that contribute to your headaches you should try to modify or change these factors.

Prevention

It is important to follow through with a prevention or maintenance program to reduce reoccurrence of future headaches. There are many options when it comes to preventative measures including massage therapy, relaxation and stress management techniques, postural awareness, workplace ergonomics, stretching and strengthening programs, regular aerobic exercise, and a headache diary.

A massage every couple of months can aid in reducing tension in the muscles, will help to maintain good posture and will also provide relaxation and stress relief. Regular massages can also help to point out problem areas before they become a pain causing structure. This will help with headache management as it may signify the need to restart certain exercises or visit your physiotherapist.

The ability to de-stress and relax is very important for headache sufferers as stress can affect blood flow and cause muscle tension. For some people stress may be one of the main contributing factors of their headaches. Yoga is an effective method to relax, stretch and de-stress the mind and body. Regular aerobic exercise is another effective method to help increase blood flow to the muscles which will help to reduce tension. When it comes to relaxation it is an individualized approach, and each person should strive to find what works for them.

If posture was identified as a main contributing factor for headache pain, steps should be taken to ensure your workplace station or home office is set up ergonomically for your body. An individualized ergonomic set-up will aid in maintaining good posture throughout the work day and decrease the stress and strain on your muscles and joints. Stretching frequently throughout the day will also reduce tension, as well as avoiding prolonged sustained positions will help to decrease stiffness and strain. Stretches should be held at a comfortable position, not into pain, for a minimum of 30 seconds and repeated throughout the day as necessary.

A headache diary can help to identify triggers or contributing factors. If you know what these factors are it is easier to avoid or modify them and will help reduce or eliminate your headaches.

A detailed physiotherapy assessment and complete physiotherapy treatment approach are necessary to address all of the contributing factors and therefore the root cause of a headache. Over the counter medications only treat the symptoms of the headache and not the pain. If headaches have become a normal part of life for you or someone you know, a physiotherapy assessment with a trained manual therapist should be considered to help solve the underlying issues.

BodyTech Physiotherapy

BodyTech Physiotherapy
519-954-6000

Running Injuries Part 3: Achilles Tendinopathy

Achilles tendinopathy is an overuse injury that commonly affects competitive and recreational athletes involved in running or jumping sports. The incidence of Achilles tendon injuries is highest in runners at any level of experience due to the repetitive nature. The term tendinopathy encompasses both tendonitis and tendinosis, which are the different stages that may occur with this condition. Tendonitis refers to inflammation of the tendon as a result of micro tears from increased stress caused by repetitive loading, overloading and even natural aging. Tendinosis is a degeneration of the tendon as a result of chronic overuse and lack of adequate healing time. Achilles tendon rupture can occur with improper healing of the Achilles tendon or a premature return to sport. When the Achilles tendon has been stressed repeatedly, it becomes difficult for the tendon to withstand further tension and can result in an injury. Exposure to repetitive micro trauma to tendon tissue overwhelms the tendon cells and decreases their ability to repair the fibre damage, causing the tendon tissue to be fatigued. Furthermore, the structure of the tendon becomes disrupted; the collagen fibers begin to slide past one another, breaking their cross-links and weakening the tissue, resulting in inflammation.

Calve muscles and tendonsThe Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. This tendon originates at the junction of the two calf muscles: gastrocnemius and soleus, and then inserts into the heel. The gastrocnemius-soleus musculotendinous unit is responsible for plantarflexion of the ankle and flexion of the leg at the knee. We use these powerful calf muscles for explosive activities like running and jumping, and the Achilles tendon transmits these forces down to the ankle joint. These constant stresses placed on the Achilles tendon increase the chance of injury. Additionally, due to the poor blood flow of the tendon, overuse or overloading in combination with inadequate healing time can lead to injury.
Achiles TendonitisSymptoms begin gradually as a mild ache or stiffness in the back of the lower leg and will eventually progress to constant sharp pain with each step. Pain may be worse when you first wake up in the morning. Runners may experience pain at the start of their run, which eases during the run, followed by an increase in pain after the run. Pain may be accompanied by tenderness around the tendon as well as swelling in the area.

A detailed assessment of the lower limb should include assessment of alignment in standing and during movement to look for any muscle imbalances or incorrect muscle recruitment. Both walking and running mechanics should be assessed for obvious errors. Several factors may contribute to the development of Achilles tendinopathy. Lack of mobility of the hip, knee, foot and ankle may lead to increased strain on both the muscles and tendons of the lower leg. Alternatively, too much mobility in the foot and ankle such as over pronation can also increase the stress through the tendon. These changes to the lower extremities can impact different phases of the gait pattern and running stride, which would then change the workload of the tendon. Additionally, training errors such as sudden changes in intensity, speed, distance, surface, or improper footwear cause overloading of the tendon. As well, not having an effective warm up and cool down for runs can result in injury. Previously untreated injuries to the foot and ankle, such as plantar fasciitis and ankle sprains, can also lead to Achilles tendon issues.

The initial goal of treating Achilles tendinopathy would be to relieve symptoms by controlling inflammation while correcting training errors, muscle weakness and limb alignment. Therapeutic ultrasound is one modality that can be used to reduce inflammation and promote blood flow to the Achilles tendon, facilitating appropriate healing. Other treatment options include bracing or taping to support the tendon while healing and can be used to prevent further injury. During physiotherapy for Achilles tendinopathy your treatment plan will consist of hands on manual therapy to restore movement, and a personalized set of strengthening and stretching exercises. Similar to recovering from other running injuries, gradual return to running would ensure adequate recovery from the initial injury, and help prevent reoccurrence of injury. Incorporation of dynamic warmups before activity is another great way to help prevent injury. Stay tuned for the next topic in our running series, which will show a simple and effective dynamic warm-up for runners.

BodyTech Physiotherapy

BodyTech Physiotherapy
519-954-6000

Running Injuries Part I: Runner’s Knee

Sunset RunSpring is a great time for outdoor running with the melting snow and rising temperatures however runners should be cautious when switching from indoor to outdoor surfaces. Increased mileage and change in footing as runners move outdoors increases the risk of developing an injury. One of the most common complaints is knee pain, which can be a symptom of multiple injuries. The first part of our running injury series will focus on one of those injuries; patellofemoral pain syndrome, commonly known as runner’s knee.

Runner’s knee is an umbrella term used to describe anterior knee pain, pain behind or pain around the kneecap mainly as a result of misalignment of the patella and muscle imbalances. Symptoms begin with a gradual onset of dull aching pain and swelling that usually starts during a run. Over time any running, descending stairs, kneeling and squatting become painful from the resulting stress on the patellofemoral joint. Sitting for prolonged periods with the knee flexed will also be painful, and grinding noises called crepitus may be present.

There are a number of contributing factors to the development of runner’s knee, which can make it challenging to treat. Any activity that increases the stress on the patellofemoral joint can contribute to the development of runner’s knee as the surrounding tissues become irritated and painful. This can occur with new runners or those who increase the intensity, speed and duration of their runs. Additionally, downhill running and running on firm surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete, increase the stress on the patellofemoral joint.

Muscle tightness, weakness or anatomical/biomechanical abnormalities in the leg can alter the distribution of force through the knee and affect the alignment and tracking of the patella, placing increased stress on the patellofemoral joint. The main areas to consider are the quadriceps muscle, gluteus medius muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, and iliotibial band.

One key muscle is the quadriceps. The four heads of the quadriceps femoris converge into a single tendon that inserts on the patella and continues through the patellar ligament to insert on the tibia, functioning to extend the leg at the knee and stabilize the hip. Another key muscle is the gluteus medius that originates on the hip and inserts on the femur, which also helps to stabilize the pelvis when the opposite leg is raised. If the quadriceps and gluteus medius muscles are weak and unable to stabilize the hip during running, normal force distribution throughout the knee and leg will be altered.

If the gluteus maximus muscle is tight, it will externally rotate the thigh, altering its angle relative to the lower leg, which will disrupt normal tracking of the patella. The iliotibial band runs down the outside of the thigh and inserts on the tibia, but it also connects to the patella via patellar tendons. Tightness of the iliotibial band can pull the patella slightly laterally, increasing stress on the patellofemoral joint.
Additionally, any tight muscles around the knee can affect movement of the patella, potentially causing excessive stress on the joint. Over pronation of the feet causes the leg to drop and internally rotate with each step, which can alter normal movement of the patella.Knee

The first step in rehabilitation is to determine all of the underlying and contributing factors. A detailed physiotherapy assessment will reveal areas of tightness and weakness, as well as any anatomical and biomechanical factors. Tight muscles will be addressed with education on correct stretching techniques and a personalized stretching program. Specific strengthening of weak muscles and correction of biomechanical changes will be addressed with a progression of strengthening exercises from isometric to dynamic, and eventually functional and activity specific. Any hip, pelvis or lower back restrictions will be treated through joint mobilizations. It is important to consider more than just the structures immediately surrounding the knee because stiffness in these other joints will cause biomechanical changes that become more evident with running, and may cause the condition to reoccur if these areas are not addressed. Corrective taping to keep the patella in proper alignment can relieve pain and help to prevent aggravation of the condition during a gradual return to running. Evaluation and correction of footwear, gait and running stride will help to improve running form and improve biomechanics during running.

The goal following physiotherapy treatment is for a pain and injury free return to the previous level of running. Maintenance or improvement of hip, lower extremity and trunk flexibility as well as strength will not only prevent a reoccurrence of runner’s knee, but also protect against other running injuries. Stay tuned for part 2 of our running injuries series to learn about a different cause of knee pain; iliotibial band friction syndrome.

BodyTech Physiotherapy

BodyTech Physiotherapy
519-954-6000

The Importance of Posture

Posture types

Person A shows good posture, with a straight line going through the ear, tip of the shoulder, slightly behind the hip joint, slightly in front of the knee joint and slightly in front of the lateral malleolus (ankle) in the foot. The rest of the postures shown are incorrect, with different points of the body deviating either too far forward or too far behind the line that would indicate correct posture.

Posture is not typically on our minds until it starts to cause discomfort or injury. Today’s lifestyle regularly involves sitting or standing for prolonged periods of time, which is often sustained at the expense of proper posture. Posture refers to the position of our bodies, which is created by the different joint angles and the muscles that control those joints. Correct posture requires minimum muscular activity to maintain, which in turn minimizes stress placed on the joints. The opposite occurs with incorrect posture; muscles fatigue in attempt to maintain the altered position and joints are placed under increased stress.

There are a variety of factors that can cause or contribute to faulty posture. Correct posture may be difficult to maintain if joints are too stiff or too mobile, muscles are weak, too shortened or lengthened, or imbalanced. Over time incorrect posture will cause joint stiffness, thus causing the muscles to work harder and may result in pain. At this point, self-correction becomes difficult as it is harder to correct through joint stiffness. Joint stiffness will also result in some muscles becoming weak and others overused due to a change in the starting position of the stiff joint. Early identification of these contributing factors could prevent an injury from occurring, or from becoming a chronic problem that is more difficult to treat.

Possible consequences of poor posture include neck, shoulder, and back pain, or headaches and jaw pain from increased stress on muscles, joints, tendons and ligaments. Muscles will become shortened and tight from being in a slouched position, and the muscles on the other side of the joints will become lengthened and weak from constantly being stretched. The resulting muscle imbalance limits range of motion, changing the way the body moves, which will affect work or sport performance.

A detailed posture assessment by a physiotherapist can identify the contributing factors to poor posture, and is a smart idea for anyone wishing to be proactive and prevent future injury. Once these contributing factors are identified there a number of treatment options that will target the causes of the poor posture, prevent further injury, and help to decrease pain. A strengthening program will be designed to target weak muscles, and stretching will loosen tight muscles. This treatment combination works to correct these muscle imbalances, making correct posture easier to maintain while decreasing pain. Strengthening has the additional benefit of stabilizing loose joints, and joint mobilizations can correct stiff joints. Joint mobilization is a specific hands-on technique to improve joint movement, and can help to relieve pain and restore function. A combination of exercise, manual therapy and education will improve your course of recovery and assist with further injury prevention. Education about how to maintain correct posture in daily activities will allow you to remain pain free and prevent further injury.

Don’t Let Arthritis Pain Keep you from Life!

KneeSeptember is National Arthritis month and a great time to increase awareness about the disease that affects over 4.6 million Canadians. “Athro” means joint and “itis” means inflammation. The joint inflammation that is characteristic of arthritic conditions can cause joint and musculoskeletal pain. Joint inflammation can also cause redness, swelling, stiffness and heat. These symptoms can inhibit normal use of the joint and lead to loss of function over time.  Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent type and results in degeneration of the cartilage within joints, while rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease where the body attacks the lining of the joints.

At BodyTech Physiotherapy our experienced physiotherapists will work with you to create an exercise program that will not only make daily tasks more comfortable, but will also allow you to pursue your hobbies and active goals. An effective exercise program can be designed for all levels of abilities and function and will be simple to perform at home. Stretching and range of motion exercises can relieve stiffness and restore normal joint movement, while strengthening exercises are important to allow surrounding muscles to provide stability to joints. Stability provided by muscles prevents too much motion of the joints, thus protecting them from excessive wear and tear. Another key outcome of an exercise program is pain reduction. Pressure in the joints caused by inflammation and swelling is unloaded with proper exercise allowing the joints to move freely and function normally. Education about proper body mechanics and posture will also protect the integrity of the joints and help reduce pain and stiffness.

In addition to an appropriate exercise program, an important role of physiotherapy in arthritis care is manual therapy. Manual therapy involves joint manipulation and mobilization that can improve range of motion and reduce pain, therefore allowing exercises to be performed more effectively. In fact, studies have shown that manual therapy combined with an exercise program provides improved pain relief and joint function compared to exercise alone.  At BodyTech Physiotherapy, manual therapy comprises a large part of our treatment, thus providing you with the essential care to treat your arthritis.

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